DSO Photography for Dummies - Motivation and Introduction

Introduction | My Motivation | Four Solutions - One Approach | Summary | Links

On this page I would like to share the motivation behind my attempts at "DSO photography for dummies and lazy people" and make some introductory remarks. Then I present a few solutions that I regard as "practically usable." Technical details, examples, and experiences (if available ...) can be found on the pages for the respective devices.




Astronomy is a great hobby that interests quite a few people. However, many beginners are soon disappointed with what they see in their telescopes (let's assume everything else is OK...). This is because it bears little resemblance to or is only a faint reflection of what can be seen in books and on the Internet on photos that were taken with large or even space telescopes, such as the Hubble telescope: There are no colors, and details are difficult to recognize. Often, you can only see a faint glow, provided you see anything...

The founders of Unistellar, who designed the eVscope (more on this below), describe this "disappointment" as follows:

In contrast to photographic emulsions and sensors, our eyes cannot store light and therefore cannot produce a picture impression corresponding to long-exposure photos. In addition, the eye is sensitive to color only at the center (called "yellow spot"). But the cones there are far less sensitive to light than the rods in the outer regions of the retina. Therefore, the light of faint sky objects is not enough to recognize colors. The rods, however, cannot recognize colors, are also distributed more loosely (Stoyan speaks of a 2 to 3 times lower resolution) and are not present at the center of the eye.

Hobby astronomers therefore learn "telescopic" or "indirect" vision to recognize details with the peripheral rods. They do not look directly at the object, but a little past it, as already mentioned, at the expense of color and sharpness. One has to practice this kind of seeing, and one should also observe an object over a longer period of time in order to discover new details. Probably, only a few have the patience that is required for this - I, at least, have it only to a lesser extent (after all, I have found that movements of the eye help to detect details, because the rods are sensitive to movements) ...

Many hobby astronomers have therefore turned to astrophotography, especially since it has become digital. Nowadays, many telescopes are already tailored to astrophotography (different focal position, different sizes for the secondary mirror of reflector telescopes, etc.), which in turn annoys purely visual observers (as I read in forums...), which meanwhile feel "abandoned" by telescope manufacturers. Anyway, the possible compromises (a telescope for both uses) seem to be unacceptable for those who always strive for the optimum...

In the simplest case, you can hold a camera (or mobile phone) to the eyepiece to get photos of celestial objects, but that works only for bright objects, such as the moon and the planets. If you really want to take beautiful photos of deep sky objects, you have to use a DSLR or system camera, a suitable tube, a (heavy!) equatorial/parallactic mount, and extensive accessories. In addition, a lot of patience and time for the recording and post-processing of the photos are needed. This scares me, and certainly many others as well, from pursuing this route. And since I do not have any experience of my own in this area, I do not want to go into more detail here. After all, a hobby astronomer, from whom I acquired my used Skymax-127, showed me that already with a 6" Newton tube similar to mine and a standard DSLR (and other equipment of course ...) beautiful photos of deep sky objects are possible.


My Motivation

All in all, my situation was as follows:

So my problem was that I would like to do "deep sky photography and observation for dummies and lazy people", albeit with little effort and using mostly what I already own (of course, a camera is needed...). But the question was: Is that possible at all, and, if so, how?


Four Solutions - One Approach

In the following, I present four solutions as possible answers to my question, "Is that possible at all?" Three of them, however, require completely new gear... All solutions can be labeled "electronically augmented astronomy" (EAA), sometimes also called "video astronomy" (but there seem to be subtle differences that I do not want to go into here - the solutions described here do not create a video image anyway).

With these solutions, one regrettably, has to abandon the idea of purely visual observing. These solutions are based on the fact that the incoming light is no longer received by the eye, but by a high-sensitivity CCD or CMOS sensor, further processed by software, and displayed on a screen, be it a computer screen or an electronic viewfinder. Exposure times are typically in the range of seconds, and incoming images are overlaid one after the other, called "image stacking", to reduce image noise and show more detail.

Unlike traditional astrophotography, these solutions offer a kind of "live" viewing experience and you do not have to wait until the end of the observations to see the results. The processing is already "live" and not done afterwards, even though that is also possible. The differences to astrophotography are due to the sensors used: DSLRs have large high-resolution sensors (16 MP and more, APS-C or full frame), two of these solutions use small, low-resolution sensors (about 1 MP) with relatively large pixels for increased sensitivity, on solution already a sensor with 6 MP. These sensors are also different from the small sensors of digital point-and-shot cameras, which have exorbitant resolutions (10-20 MP) and tiny pixels.

The solutions that I will introduce here differ in many details, ultimately in how "dummy-friendly" they are, but in my view they have enough in common to be able to speak of "one approach."

Addendum: I assume that more such telescopes will appear in the near future...

Unistellar eVscope

In November 2017, I came across the Unistellar eVscope via the Abenteuer Astronomie Newsletter. For quite a bit of money, a solution to my problem actually seemed to take shape, even though it would not be available before November 2018 at the earliest. I supported the respective Kickstarter project (it's over now), unfortunately already at the highest possible price, and now I am in anticipation of the "wonder telescope", with which EVERYTHING should be very easy, because it aligns automatically. It is a 4.5" Newtonian telescope that has a sensitive Sony CMOS sensor in place of the secondary mirror, and instead of an optical eyepiece it has an "eyepiece-like" device for viewing an electronic screen (such as an electronic viewfinder for digital cameras). It is mounted on a simple AZ GoTo mount (sic!).

  • Enhanced Vision Technology
    for incredible views of the night
  • Autonomous Field Detection
    easy pinpointing and learning
  • Campaign Mode
    feel the thrills of scientific discovery
  • Connected
    smartphone controllable and social media sharing
  • Portable and Autonomous
    carry it and use it anywhere

The image can be transmitted to smartphones, tablets, and computers, so that you can also show your pictures to other people in parallel to the observation and share them later. The image is in color, but compared with DSLR photos has a much lower resolution. This is simply for people who want to have a very easy solution, but still want to have a "live" impression similar to the one they saw on photos. The telescope is also quite insensitive to light pollution (the software attempts to take care of it).

Here are the technical data for a comparison with the Stellina and Hiuni telescopes (see below):






  • Magnification: 50 x/100 x/150 x (adjusted digitally)
  • Maximum magnitude: up to 16 mag in standard night sky
  • Mirror diameter: 4.5"
  • Focal length: 450 mm
  • Focal ratio: 1:4
  • Field of view: ~30' (0.61° x 0.46°; 1.72" x 1.72" per pixel*)
  • Motorized Alt-AZ mount
  • Weight: 15.4 lbs (7 kg) including tripod

*) Calculated with Astronomy.tools

  • Sensor model: Sony IMX224 (CMOS) - for details see below
  • Read noise: < 1e-
  • Display: Micro-OLED (1,000,000:1 contrast ratio)
  • Battery life: up to 10 hours
  • 6 axis compass/accelerometer
  • Wireless connectivity: Wifi or Bluetooth for smartphone or computer control and GPS access (no GPS inside)

Sensor Data

  • Sony Exmor IMX224 color CMOS sensor - 1.2 MPixels
  • Sensor size: 1/3" diagonal* (4.8 mm x 3.6 mm), 1280 x 960 pixels (1305 x 907 effective)
  • Pixel size: 3.75 µm x 3.75 µm

*) Diagonal: 6.09 mm (type 1/3, Quad VGA mode) or 5.59 mm (type 1/3.2, HD720p mode)

  • Autonomous field detection
  • Fully automated star alignment procedure
  • Automated pointing
  • Automated celestial tracking with feedback
  • Field derotation
  • Intelligent image processing
  • Intelligent sensor settings
  • Light pollution reduction

Delivery was initially scheduled for November 2018, but was postponed to May 2019 after cooperating with a professional telescope manufacturer had started to create time for "industrial prototypes." More about this telescope on page Unistellar eVscope.

Atik Infinity

I asked my telescope dealer about the eVscope and his answer was not really encouraging: He considered it as a toy (but he might buy one when it becomes available...). He also said that an Atik Infinity camera on a 6" Newtonian tube would be a more flexible solution. Thus, he had given me a cue, which I continued to pursue, because it should still take at least a year until the eVscope will be delivered and I do not want to wait that long.

I quickly realized that I had read about this camera before, but without realizing what makes it so attractive for many hobby astronomers (and it seemed too expensive for me at the time ...). My dealer also said that the camera was too expensive and advised me to buy one second hand. That is why I published search ads in two astronomy forums - and received an offer from an obvious fraudster (as I learned on request from a French radio amateur Website, where this guy was already well known...). Then I came across the Website of a hitherto unknown telescope leasing company and was able to use a "Christmas offer" for a good second-hand purchase. Now the camera is mine, but because of the weather I not use it often up to now. This camera, equipped with a CCD sensor from Sony, continuously records images that are superimposed in real time (this is called "image stacking") on a computer running the Atik Infinity software, so that one has more or less the impression of a "live" observation on the computer monitor, whereby the images improve continuously by overlaying old images with newer ones (the eVscope, Stellina, and Hiuni work similarly). The images can be recorded and subsequently edited. And what was also important for me: The camera can be used with a scope on a simple AZ GoTo mount! Unlike the eVscope and Stellina, all this looks much more "technically", also because you have certain options for changing the camera settings. All in all, this solution provides an idea of what you can expect from the eVscope and Stellina.

Photos: Atik Infinity Colour camera, ditto with additional screw-in 12 V power adapter (bottom left), complete equipment with Explorer 150 PDS (bottom center and right)

What does this solution look like in practice? In fact, it is not much more complicated than if I work with the Star Discovery AZ GoTo mount alone. Since the beginning of 2018, I have been using the Celestron StarSense module for the alignment of the Star Discovery mount, and with this, I am, with respect to the alignment, "on par" with the eVscope. After telescope and mount are aligned, I put the camera into the eyepiece mount, connect it to the 12V power supply, which has two sockets (one is occupied by the mount), and connect it via USB cable to my laptop computer, on which I run the Atik Infinity software (on the Mac using the Windows emulator Parallels Desktop). On the monitor, I can see more or less "live" what I observe, and the image is iteratively getting better thanks to "image stacking."

Basically, the whole affair is a kind of "kit solution" in comparison with the "ready-to-go" solutions of the eVscope, Stellina, and Hiuni. The sensor of the Atik Infinity camera has a slightly higher resolution and larger pixels than the eVscope's sensor. Therefore, the results should be marginally better, especially if I use my 6" Newtonian tube. I think that the effort for using the Atik Infinity camera is absolutely acceptable. And it is also still considered a "beginners' solution"...

I would also like to add that I have learned by now that there are similar cameras like the Atik Infinity, but the Infinity is probably the simplest and most widely used solution.

More on the Atik Infinity camera on pages Atik Infinity Colour Camera, Atik Infinity Colour Camera - Experiences, and Atik Infinity Colour Camera - Software.

Vaonis Stellina

I only came across the Stellina telescope from Vaonis at the beginning of January 2018 because, like the Unistellar eVscope, it was presented at the CES 2018 in Las Vegas and mentioned in a corresponding message alongside the eVscope.

Photo: The Vaonis Stellina telescope (from the Vaonis Website (FR/EN))

Its technical data require some scrolling on the Vaonis products page (FR/EN), but here they are:






  • Weight: 15 lbs (7 kg)
  • Size: 19 x 15 x 4.7 in (49 x 39 x 12 cm)
  • Power supply: AC power with micro-USB 5V 2A power supply
    Optional mobile portable charger
  • Autonomy: ≈ 10 hours of use with a 20,000 mAh external battery
  • Image processing: Integrated and adapted to target
  • Alignement: Automated
  • Water resistance: IP53
  • Accessories included: Tripod, Power supply adapter
  • Control: Smartphone/Tablet
  • Objective: ED doublet refractor
  • Aperture: 3.15 in (80 mm)
  • Focal length: 15.75 in (400 mm)
  • Focal ratio: F/5
  • Focus: Integrated autofocus
  • Field of view: 1° x 0.7° (1.06° x 0.71°; 1.24" x 1.24" per pixel**)


  • Sensor: Sony 1/1.8" CMOS IMX178 - 6.4 M
  • Pixel Resolution: 3096 x 2080
  • Pixel Size: 2.4 µm x 2.4 µm
  • Type: Alt-azimuth
  • Pointing: Automated with star aiming technology
  • Guiding: Autonomous autoguiding included
  • Field derotator: Included and controlled by the integrated computer

*) I found on the Internet that someone attached the ZWO ASI178MC camera, which uses the IMX178 sensor, to an Orion Short Tube 400 mm f/5 refractor telescope (80 mm aperture). These very similar technical data suggest that my sensor speculation might be true... In the meantime, Vaonis confirmed that this is the sensor used in Stellina.
**) Calculated with Astronomy.tools

Like the eVscope, the Stellina telescope aligns itself automatically (autonomous field detection), can automatically "point" to objects, calculate out the field rotation, and take light pollution into account. It also sits on an Alt-AZ mount, but this one is two-armed and should thus, be more stable, and even the 7 kg weight is similar to the eVscope.

But there are also clear differences: The Stellina telescope is a refractor with two aspherical ED glasses (recently added), 80 mm aperture, and 400 mm focal length, resulting in an aperture ratio of f/5. The Sony CMOS sensor used has more than twice the resolution as the one used in the eVscope (and as the CCD sensor of the Atik Infinity camera). The telescope is designed for wide-field observations and has a field of view of 1° x 0.7° (that is, two moon or sun diameters). Unistellar, on the other hand, mentions a field of view of ~ 30' for the eVscope (about 0.5°, about the moon or sun diameter). And while the eVscope has an eyepiece to look at a small screen, the Stellina telescope no longer has an eyepiece and you "observe" on your smartphone or tablet only.

With initially 2,000 EUR, the price was approximately the same as the eVscope will cost after the end of the Kickstarter campaign. But in the meantime, the price has risen to 3,000 EUR. Delivery is scheduled for April 2019 (status: November 2018).


I hit on the Hiuni teleskop from ComingSoon Tech, probably from China and the USA, in May 2018, when it was discussed on the Kickstarter page of the Unistellar eVscope because a Kickstarter campaign for this telescope was started in May 2018. The delivery of the Hiuni telescope is scheduled for June 2019, just one month later as the new delivery date for the eVscope. The idea for the Hiuni telescope was born already at the beginning of 2015. A first design concept emerged in autumn 2015 (see the timeline on the Hiuni Kickstarter page).

Photo: The Hiuni telescope (from ComingSoon Tech Website)

Here are some technical data for a comparison with the eVscope and Stellina:





Smart Features (some)

  • Cassegrain (finder: refractor)
  • Magnification: n.a.
  • Maximum magnitude: 12.8 mag (finder: 8.4 mag)
  • Mirror diameter (aperture): 6 " (152.4 mm)
  • Focal length : 1524 mm
  • Aperture ratio : 1:10
  • Field of view: ~16' (0.27° x 0.20°*; 0.7" x 0.7" per pixel*)
  • Motorized Alt-AZ mount
  • Weight: 10-13 kg with tripod

*) Calculated using Astronomy.tools

  • GPS
  • Accelerometer
  • Magnetometer
  • Wireless connection: Wi-Fi
  • Autonomy: n.a. (bettery in-built)

Sensor Data

  • Dual Sensor: Aptina MT9M001-C/M (telescope color/finder b&w, CMOS)
  • Sensor size: 1/2"
  • Pixel resolution: 1280 x 1024 pixels
  • Pixel size: 5.2 µm x 5.2µm
  • Fully automated star alignment
  • GoTo function
  • Automatic tracking
  • Image Stacking
  • Dual live view (telescope, finder)
  • Diverse educational aids and supports

Find more about this telescope on page Hiuni: A Smart, Connected GoTo Telescope (Kickstarter).

Now a few words about this telescope from my point of view. When I found the Kickstarter campaign, the telescope was available for $489 for only two more hours. Now it already costs $539, which is still much cheaper than the planned final price - and much cheaper than the eVscope and Stellina. However, I did not want to make a quick decision, especially since I have some doubts about the telescope. On the one hand, the low price is astonishing, and there are already people on the kickstarter side who doubt that the telescope can even be delivered at this price. I have my doubts about this too... But more important for me is that I cannot fully value the concept of the Hiuni telescope. And besides, it is a little too big and heavyfor me.

About the Hiuni concept: As a Cassegrain telescope with a long focal length (1.524 m), a low focal ratio (f/10) and a small field of view (0.27° x 0.20°), the Hiuni is more suited to observing planets and the moon than deep sky objects. Despite the large opening, the maximum magnitude is correspondingly small (below 13 mag). Although it is also praised for higher light intensity DSO, its strengths certainly lie elsewhere. But since I am mainly interested in observing DSOs with such a telescope (I have my Maksutovs for moon and planets...), I am less interested in the Hiuni telescope.

Comparison Table

Finally, a comparison table, which also shows how the different sensors, and for the Atik Infinity camera, the different telescopes (or better, their focal lengths), affect the resolution.

Telescope/Camera > Hiuni Stellina eVscope
Manufacturer Bosma Vaonis Unistellar
Telescope (AI) Custom, Cassegrain Custom, Refractor Custom, Newton 6" Newton
Explorer 150PDS, StarBlast 6, ...
5" Newton
Heritage P130, Sky Prodigy 130, ...
4.5" Newton
Heritage 114N, StarBlast 114, ...
4.5" Newton
StarBlast 4.5, ...
Manufacturer (AI)       SkyWatcher, Orion Sky-Watcher, Celestron Sky-Watcher, Orion Orion
Focal Length 1524 mm 400 mm 450 mm 750 mm 650 mm 500 mm 450 mm
Aperture 152.4 mm 80 mm 114 mm 150 mm 130 mm 114 mm 114 mm
Aperture Ratio f/10 f/5 f/4 f/5 f/5 f/4.5 f/4
Resolving Power (Dawes)+ 0.79"§/0.75"* 1.45"* 1.02"* 0.77"* 0.89"* 1.02"* 1.02"*

Resolving Power (Rayleigh)++

0.92"§ 1.73" 1.12" 0.92" 1.06" 1.12" 1.12"
Sensor Aptina MT9M001-C/M Sony IMX178 Sony IMX224
Sony ICX825
Pixel Resolution 1280 x 1024 3096 x 2080 1280 x 960
1392 x 1040
Pixel Size 5.2 µm x 5.2 µm 2.4 µm x 2.4 µm 3.75 µm x 3.75 µm
6.45 µm x 6.45 µm
Resolution H 0.27°/16.2'
10.3° (finder)
1° (1.06°/63.6'*) ~30' (0.5°)
0.69°/41.16'** 0.79°/47.49'** 1.03°/61.74'** 1.14°/68.60'**
Resolution V 0.2°* 0.7° (0.71°*) 0.46°* 0.51°* 0.59°* 0.77°* 0.85°*
Resolution per Pixel 0.7"* 1.24"* 1.72"* 1.77"** 2.05"** 2.66"** 2.96"**

*) Calculated with Astronomy.tools; **) my own calculations, verified with Astronomy.tools
+) also calculated as 114/aperture; ++) calculated as 138/aperture; § given by manufacturer

Technically, the simplest solution compared with the eVscope, Stellina, or Hiuni would probably be a combination of the Celestron Sky Prodigy 130 and the Atik Infinity camera. At the moment (beginning of March 2018), this combination would cost in Germany about 900 to 920 EUR + 1090 EUR, that is, with shipping around 2000 EUR - as much as the eVscope is said to cost after the Kickstarter campaign...

The Vaonis Stellina telescope has a field of view that is almost twice as large as that of the eVscope, making it more suitable for larger DSOs. The 4 times higher sensor resolution, however, is less clearly reflected in the reproduction of details: a 15' large object (e.g. M 13 in Hercules) extends over 523 pixels with the eVscope and over 726 pixels with the Stellina; this is a factor of almost 1.4 and not earth-shattering... In addition to the number of pixels, the "quality" of the pixels (noise behavior etc.) is also important, which I cannot say anything about at the moment, except for that the pixels of the eVscope sensor are significantly larger than those of the Stellina sensor (3.75 µm compared to 2.4µm).

The Hiuni telescope is, as already written, better suited to observing planets and the moon than DSOs. Despite the large aperture and the large pixels the maximum magnitude is only 12.8 mag. The field of view covers only half of the moon! But maybe the Hiuni can play to its strengths with some smaller DSOs (e.g. globular clusters, Ring Nebula M 57)... Note that an object of 15' like the Hercules Cluster M 13 nearly covers the complete width of the view of the Huini telescope (and more than its height). Thus, the Hiuni will offer about twice the number of pixels for this object than the eVscope.

There is one more thing that strikes me, but I do not have the knowledge to understand what this really means. For all the solutions shown for the Atik Infinity, the telescope resolves more than 2 times better (Dawes criterion) than the pixel resolution of the sensor. So you might say that these telescope tubes are "oversized" for the camera. The eVscope still has a factor of almost 1.7, but Stellina's and Hiuni's sensors resolve better than the telescopes. One might say that the sensors are "oversized" and that the telescopes cannot keep up with them. What that means in practice, I regrettably cannot tell you at the moment...



If you are willing to spend some money, but only in this case, there are indeed solutions that can be described as "deep-sky photography for dummies and lazy people," including "near live observation." By the way, "real" astrophotography is not cheap either. Above, I presented two solutions that I own or will own in May 2019, and two others that I found at the beginning of 2018 and in May 2018. Others will probably follow soon. They by no means deliver results comparable to those achievable with "true" astrophotography, but they provide a "near live experience" that can also be accessed more or less quickly. They do not require you to wait for the results for a long time, or to put a lot of time and effort into post-processing. Of course, you can also post-process the images and share them, but you cannot expect any "miracles" in terms of image quality, especially resolution. As soon as I will be able to present examples, I will do so (see Atik Infinity Photo Gallery), but you can find quite a lot of them for all the solutions on the Internet.

I own already one of the two solutions that I decided to buy, the Atik Infinity, but I was not really able to try it out properly. Nevertheless, there are already some first results. For the other solution, I will have to wait, at least, until May 2019. Therefore, I cannot offer any experiences with it...




An den Anfang   Homepage  

gerd (at) waloszek (dot) de

About me
made by walodesign on a mac!