Messier 31 (M 31) - Andromeda Galaxy

Introduction | Map | Sketch | My Own Observations | My Own Photos | References

On this page I collect my observations of the Andromeda galaxy M 31 in the constellation Andromeda.



The Andromeda galaxy M 31 in constellation Andromeda (but it rather is located between the constellation of Andromeda and Cassiopeia), is our neighboring galaxy and about 2.5 million light years away from us. Because it can be seen with the naked eye under good conditions (in which I have never succeeded yet), it is the most remote sky object that we can see with the naked eye. It can be seen in binoculars and in small telescopes as a diffuse shimmering elongated oval - and I have not been able to detect any details yet, although one should actually recognize the two small galaxies M 32 (like a star) and M 110 in a small telescope. In other words, light pollution is quite high in Mühlhausen / Kraichgau. With the Atik Infinity camera, however, I was able to see the galaxy M 32 in January 2018 for the first time ever!

Size: 3° x 1° (Stoyan)
Distance: 2.5 million light years
Rating: ***** (Stoyan)



M 31 between Andromeda and Cassiopeia

Overview map: Andromeda Galaxy M 31 and Perseus Double Cluster NGC 884/869



The sketch by Michael Vlasov ( provides a rough impression of what I observed (my impression was much fainter than the sketch):

Sketch of the Andromeda Galaxy by Michael Vlasov (Copyright © Michael Vlasov 2016) - presented with the author's permission


My Own Observations

Observations Summer to Autumn 2016

Observations February/March 2017

Observations September 2017

Observations October/November 2017

Observations January 2018


My Own Photos

Atik Infinity & Skymax-127 (January 14, 2018)


M 31 and M 32 (top left, Andromeda), unprocessed


M 31 and M 32 (top left, Andromeda), post-processed


M 31 and M 32 (top left, Andromeda), from recording, processed


M 31 and M 32 (top left, Andromeda), from recording, processed, darker variant


This more "aggressive" variant was started with auto-contrast and then changed slightly in the darks to make the background darker. As a result, the core is more washed out, but the fine structures are better to recognize, if one looks at the large version.

I found a similar version on astrojedi's blog, so I tried again and processed more "aggresively" to get closer to its result.

M 31 and M 32 (top left, Andromeda), from recording, processed, more "aggressive" variant


M 31 and M 32 (top left, Andromeda), from further recording, processed


M 31 and M 32 (top left, Andromeda), from yet another recording, processed

Note that these photos show the complete image and that the large versions are in original size. This is due to the fact that the sky objects are extended - even beyond the field of view.



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